kNOW micropedia - Introduction

Keywords:
• Mathematics
• Logic: language, statement, concept, ambiguity, definition, constant, variable, local, global, punctuation, bracket, proof, proposition, Lagrange, counterexample, conjecture, deduction, propositional logic, true, false, conclusion, and, or, property, predicate, not, excluded middle, negation, axiom, consistent, complete, contradiction, Henkin, Godel, Gödel.
• Sets: class, object, element, equal, subclass, subset, intersection, union, complement, difference, symmetric difference, set, set axioms, axiom of choice, power set, pair, singleton, product, ordered pair, relation, equivalence class, function, mapping, inverse, 1-1, onto, number, natural number, counting, addition, multiplication, infinity, uncountable, strong limit.
• Connectivity: connected, graph, edge, vertex, vertices, disconnected, component, degree, adjacent, path, diameter, subgraph, clique, tree, cycle, bipartite, genus, color, planar, sporadic graph, symmetric graph, Platonic, Archimedean, regular.
• Order: compared, ordinal number, well-order, lowerbound, upperbound, minimum, maximum, dual, ideal, filter, prime, maximal, lattice, complete, complement, distributive, Boolean, linear order, total order, dense, real numbers, rational, hyperreal.
• Topology: convergence, neighborhood, sequence, interior, boundary, exterior, isolated, dense, open set, closed set, connected, component, disconnected, compact, product, continuous function, Hausdorff space, limit, Tychonoff space, metric space, distance, discrete space, bounded, diameter, separable, complete, fixed point, measure, dimension, Sierpinski triangle, Cantor set, null set, locally connected, locally compact, embedding, knot, homology, Betti numbers, Euler characteristic.
• Groups: semi-group, identity, inverse, cyclic, subgroup, normal, conjugate, center, quotient, simple group, Monster, Rubik's cube, dodecahedron, integers, tiling.
• Rings & Fields: zero, subtraction, negative, one, modulo, multiple, invertible, divisor of zero, nilpotent, division ring, irreducible, factor, composite, field of fractions, commutative, Gaussian integers, unique factorization, polynomial, algebraic number, complex number, transcendental number.
• Vectors: addition, scalar multiplication, origin, line, plane, dimension, parallel, norm, convex, linear transformation, matrix, eigenvector, eigenvalue, projection, skew, rotation, reflection, invertible, divisor of zero, nilpotent, dual space, functional, kernel, inner-product, orthogonal, perpendicular, Pythagoras theorem, triangle, circle, module.
• Manifolds: curve, surface, orientable, connected sum, differentiation, tangent space, critical points, vector field, flow, sink, source, saddle, vortex, Lie derivative, curl, divergence, symplectic, Hamiltonian, sphere, projective plane, torus, Mobius strip, Klein bottle, tractroid, geometry, geodesic, parallel transport, curvature, isotropic, conic, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola, cubics, quadrics, spherical geometry, hyperbolic geometry, normal, torsion, minimal surface, complex manifold, helicoid.
• Algebras: harmonic mean, geometric mean, arithmetic mean, root mean square, complex numbers, quaternions, polynomial, root, rational function, power series, exponential, pi, logarithm, doubly periodic functions, sigma function, gamma function, zeta function, Fourier series, normal distribution, spectrum, Fourier transform, adjoint, self-adjoint, unitary
• Lie Groups: Euclidean group, octonions, exceptional groups, symmetry, spirals, helix, fractals, frieze patterns, wallpaper groups, tetrahedron, octahedron, cube, dodecahedron, icosahedron, hyperbolic space group, space group, polytope, simplex, tesseract, orthoplex, 24-cell, 120-cell, 600-cell, non-periodic tiling, Penrose tiling.
• Differential Equations: solution, stability, van der Pol, Lorenz curve, stochastic differential equations, Brownian motion, distribution, advection, elliptic equation, harmonic, potential, Bessel functions, parabolic equation, diffusion, hyperbolic equation, waves, refraction, reflection, diffraction, interference, dispersion.
• Physics
• Mechanics: quantum mechanics, slit, collapse, wave-particle, phase, free particle, wavelength, virtual particle, potential, tunneling, excitation, kinetic energy, potential energy, constrained motion, pendulum, Coriolis effect, center of mass, rigid body, precession.
• Thermodynamics: internal motion, external motion, relaxation time, conservation law, energy, momentum, angular momentum, charge, entropy, random, isolated system, equilibrium, ground state, internal energy, temperature, heat, pressure, flow, chemical potential, diffusion, convection, conduction, radiation, adiabatic process, isothermal process, heating, coefficient of thermal expansion, specific heat capacity, isothermal compressibility, engine, work, non-interacting particles, boson, fermion, classical gas, long-term effects, process, unstable, catalyst, creep, catastrophe, accident.
• Fluids
• Solids
• Spacetime: time, space, internal space, Planck length, dimensions, relativity, time-lag, Doppler effect, length contraction, simultaneity, cause effect, time dilation, particle, mass, energy, color, anti-particle.
• Fundamental Particles: super-symmetry, Higgs, matter, force, anti-particle, inertia, electro-weak force, photon, weakon, quark, lepton, electron, neutrino, meson, baryon, kaon, hadron, delta, proton, neutron, gluon, W particle, Z particle, alpha particle, heavy quark, heavy electron, muon, decay.
• Strong Force: nucleus, pion, spin, nucleon, H, He, Li, Be, C, N, O, F, Ar, shell, nuclear spin, metastable excited state, forbidden, orbital, liquid drop, alpha radiation, beta radiation, half-life, tritium, deuterium, magic number, fusion, fission, nuclear interaction.
• Electromagnetism: electric force, magnetism, charge, dipole, field, current, current loop, cyclotron, induction, electromagnetic wave, bremsstrahlung, antenna, radio, microwave, infrared, light, UV, ultraviolet, X-ray, synchrotron, frequency, geometric optics, photon, black-body, conductor, earth, capacitance, alternating, static, permittivity.
• Atoms: orbital, fine structure, hyperfine, periodic table, shield, transition metals, ion, ionization energy, isotope, Stark effect, diamagnetism, paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, excitation, spectrum, fluorescence, triplet state, phosphorescence, laser stimulation, thermal quenching.
• Molecules: bond, valence, covalent, sigma-bond, anti-bond, pi-bond, double bond, triple bond, electronegativity, polar bond, ionic bond, coordinate bond, noble atom, polymer, cation, anion, van der Waals, isomer, functional isomer, positional isomer, stereoisomer, enantiomer, cis/trans, tactic polymer, isotactic, syndiotactic, atactic, chemical reaction, reducer, oxidizer, electron transfer, acid, base, reaction rate, catalyst, combustion.
• Compounds
• Gravity: planetesimal, planet, warp, gravitational wave, black hole, orbit, perturbation, tide, perihelion shift, orbit resonance, Lagrangean point, collapse.
• Universe
• Cosmology: big-bang, inflation, annihilation, plasma, dark energy, quintessence, dark matter, expansion.
• Galaxies: supercluster, supergalactic plane, cluster, Local group, Milky Way, Andromeda, M33, Virgo cluster, Coma cluster, gas cloud, spiral galaxy, elliptic galaxy, halo, disk, globular cluster, population III, galactic bulge, population II, population I, nebula, dust, bubble, Horsehead, Pleiades, open cluster, star association, shockwave, Whirlpool, bar, galactic corona, nucleus, accretion disk, bipolar jet, starburst, collision, star evaporation, Magellanic cloud.
• Stars: formation, proto-star, core, T Tau, flare, brown dwarf, proton-proton cycle, carbon cycle, radiative zone, convective zone, chromosphere, corona, star wind, photosphere, granule, center of activity, coronal mass ejection, starspot, sunspot, reflection nebula, emission nebula, red giant, helium flash, variable star, planetary nebula, white dwarf, supernova, nova, neutron star, sun.
• Solar System: chondrule, ice, planet, asteroid, Kuiper belt, Oort cloud, rocky planet, core, mantle, crust, atmosphere, Jupiter, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Saturn, Titan, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Iapetus, Uranus, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, Neptune, Triton, Earth, Moon, maria, lava, Venus, thermosphere, Mars, eccentricity, albedo, Mercury, surface gravity, Ceres, Pallas, Vesta, Hygiea, meteoroid, chondrite, stony achondrite, zodiacal light, Pluto, Charon, Orcus, Quaoar, Eris, Sedna, comet, meteor shower.
• Earth: core, magnetic reversal, mantle, asthenosphere, lithosphere, crust, simaic mafic magma, sialic magma, quartz, muscovite, pyroxene, amphibole, biotite, pegmatite, phaneritic, vesicular, obsidian, pumice, amygdaloidal, igneous rock, peridotite, gabbro, basalt, diorite, andesite, dacite, grano-diorite, latite, monzonite, granite, rhyolite, continent, atmosphere, hydrosphere, sea, ionosphere, stratosphere, troposphere.
• Tectonics
• Erosion
• Rivers
• Weather
• Climate
• Magnetosphere
• Biology
• Life: heal, self-repair, replicate, reproduce, variation, K-strategy, r-strategy, boundary, control, metabolism, feeding, intake, ingestion, homeostasis, protection, motion, behavior, growth, death, interaction, producer, autotroph, consumer, heterotroph, competition, food-web, exploitation, mutualism, symbiosis, multi-unit, evolution, natural selection, adaptation, trait, niches.
• Cells: membrane, lipid, glycerol, lecithin, fatty acid, proton pump, chemotroph, phosphorylation, carbohydrate, hexose, sugar, glucose, fructose, ribose, sucrose, starch, amino acid, protein, glycine, alanine, isoleucine, leucine, valine, serine, threonine, asparagine, glutamine, hydrophilic, glutamate, lysine, arginine, aspartate, phenylalanine, proline, tyrosine, methionine, cysteine, tryptophan, histidine, secondary structure, helix, sheet, polypeptide, hydrophobic, enzyme, nucleic acid, guanine, adenine, purine, cytosine, uracil, thymine, pyrimidine, DNA.
• Metabolism: ATP, ADP, NADH, NADPH, flavoprotein, quinone, chlorophyll, cytochrome, photosynthesis, pyruvate, G3P, aldolase, oxaloacetate, acetate, glycolysis, rubisco, malate, succinate, ketoglutarate, citrate, gluconate, activation, inhibition, coenzyme, vitamin.
• DNA: gene, double helix, chromatin, transcription, repressor, promoter, transcription factor, RNA polymerase, helicase, intron, messenger RNA, mRNA, ribozyme, transfer RNA, tRNA, ribosome, DNA repair, DNA ligase, topoisomerase, replication, replisome, clamp, primer, mutation, allele, genome, virus, retrovirus, viroid, plasmid, transposon.
• Bacteria: cell-wall, flagella, fimbria, nucleoid, cyanobacteria, methanogen, spore, flagellin, archaebacteria, peptidoglycan, archaean.
• Eukaryotes: cytoskeleton, vesicle, organelle, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi body, nucleus, kinesin, microtubule, tubulin, centrosome, microfilament, actin, myosin, lamin, vimentin, clathrin, dynein, endocytosis, exocytosis, chromosome, diploid, haploid, dominant, recessive, centromere, pore, telomere, spliceosome, nuclease, homeobox, nucleolus, lysosome, phagocytosis, peroxisome, catalase, mitochondria, chloroplast, vacuole, cilia, mitosis, spindle, gamete, homologous, chiasmata, deletion, inversion, translocation, duplication, zygote, fertilization, life-cycle, meiosis.
• Multi-cellulars
• Organisms
• Psychology
• The Mind: temporal lobe, prefrontal cortex, consciousness, thought, perception, idea, imagery, attend, rehearse, boredom, vigilance, concentration, memory, understanding, rote-memorization, recall, enforcement, skill, learning, expert, reasoning, abstraction, problem solving, decision making, concept formation, creative thinking, analogy, comparison, trial-and-error, cause-effect, rule of thumb, picture, research, clarity, information, critical reasoning, brain-storming, visuo-spatial, motor, language, intelligence, knowledge, fact, authority, values, attitude, belief, egoistic, altruistic, change, rationalize, information, evidence, argument, indecision, unreliable, deception, consequence, debate, framing, generalization, extrapolation, assumption, slippery-slope, ad-hominem, communicator, self-confidence, optimist, pessimist, perseverant, worry, depression, addiction, phobia, anxiety.
• Human Interaction: word, grammar, speech, phoneme, writing, consonants, vowels, noun, verb, adjective, adverb, command, question, exclamation, phrase, emotion, gratitude, friendship, frustration, anger, rage, disgust, hate, ashamed, guilt, happy, proud, sad, hopeless, first impression, stereotype, prejudice, personality, extrovert, introvert, excitable, stable, open, closed, antagonistic, agreeable, conscientious, easy-going, self-serving bias, cynical, kinship, pressure, threat, influence, flattery, reward, commitment, circle-of-friends, resistance.
• Development: childhood, baby, infant, independent, self-doubt, discipline, play, competence, inferiority, youth, adolescence, puberty, friend, masturbation, rebelion, loneliness, romance, dating, sex, love, injury, adult, work, family, prestige, wealth, power, marriage, divorce, single, adoption, mid-life, empty nest syndrome, chronic disease, disability, health risk, old age, retire, despair, death.
• Society: order, rules, vengeance, cooperation, justice, family, community, town, city, state, country, mankind, geography, population, group, rumor, fad, fashion, crowd, panic, unrest, riot.
• Economy: economics, food, shelter, clothes, transport, furnishings, health, care, education, communication, utilities, banking, recreation, social cost, employment, money, dependency ration, doctor, pilot, lawyer, pharmacist, CEO, politician, manager, scientist, engineer, teacher, accountant, nurse, agent, technician, police, supervisor, counselor, artist, construction, assistant, operator, secretary, clerk, receptionist, craftsman, driver, aide, laborer, salesperson, guard, cleaner, waiter, investment, equity, cash, bond, real estate, firm, income, profit, supply curve, company, shareholder, director, president, employee, trade union, design, order, manufacture, marketing, quality control, sales, customer service, finance, salary, recruitment, operations, strategy, agriculture, oil, refining, mining, electricity, gas, water, drinks, textiles, processed goods, cement, glass, pottery, chemicals, metals, wood, paper, plastics, rubber, printing, assembly, car, airplane, fabricated metal, machinery, electronics, appliances, construction, building, furniture, civil engineering, services, wholesale, retail, transport, media, rental, insurance, education, school, university, leisure, restaurant, hotel, hospital, clinic, non-profit organization, market, benefit curve, law of one price, consumption, saving, tax, deficit, surplus, recession, business cycle, unemployment, inflation, inequality, free trade, monopoly, stock market.
• Law: norm, offence, responsibility, statute, crime, complice, conspirator, protector, homicide, assault, robbery, rape, theft, damage, treason, disorder, trespassing, neglect, misleading, regulation, obscenity, sacrilege, civil offence, duty, compensation, contract, offer, deposit, will, owner, inheritance, enforcement, investigation, arrest, complaint, summons, pleading, hearing, judgement, verdict, jury, sentence, appeal, arbitration, court.
• Government: state, constitution, territory, executive, legislative, judiciary, president, parliament, congress, civil service, expenditure, defense, social service, welfare, police, pension, allowance, tax, national debt, central bank, quota, local government, treaty, league, confederation, empire, international law.
• Politics: political party, whip, anarchy, totalitarian, conservative, liberal, tradition, progressive, socialist, revolutionary, public opinion, polarization, election, representation, movement, lobby.
• Social Change
• History
• Early History: Homo habilis, homo erectus, olduwan, acheulean, homo sapiens, neanderthal, levallois, chukchi, clovis, na-dene, sumnagin, kung, lapp, mongol, aborigine, eskimo, amerind, polynesian, caucasoid, ainu, austric, cromagnon, aurignacian, gravettian, magdalenian, natufian, fertile crescent.
• Agriculture: wheat, village, neolithic, yang-shao, goat, sheep, pig, ox, catal hoyuk, oven, pottery, porridge, milk, butter, cheese, flour, bread, beer, wool, hut, halaf, dravidian, djetun, farming, megalithic, Malta, longshan, sumer, eridu, ur, ubaid, irrigation, shrine, temple, lagash, uruk, kish, babylon, nippur, umma, baker, weaver, merchant, ashur, susa, lapita, Egypt, fulani, fayyum, hieroglyphs, copper, smelting, bronze, saw, chisel, plough, nail, dagger, mari, priest, cuneiform, slave, king, ziggurat, akkadian, gilgamesh, pharaoh, imhotep, pyramid, sneferu, khufu, Crete, Caucasus, Mexico.
• First Civilizations
• Mesopotamia
• Greece
• Rome
• Roman Empire
• Huns and Goths
• Byzantine Empire
• Islam
• Holy Roman Empire
• Mongols
• Renaissance
• Spain
• Reformation
• France
• Revolution
• UK Industry
• Iron growth
• World Wars
• Globalization